A Timeline by Calantha Wu

july 19, 1870

"The Franco-Prussian War, was a war in 1870-1871 lost by France to the German states under the leadership of Prussia. The underlying causes of the conflict were the determination of the Prussian statesman Prince Otto Edward Leopold von Bismarck to unify Germany under Prussian control and, as a step toward this goal, to eliminate French influence over Germany. On the other hand, Napoleon III, emperor of France from 1852 to 1870, sought to regain both in France and abroad the prestige lost as a result of numerous diplomatic reverses, particularly those suffered at the hands of Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. In addition, the military strength of Prussia, as revealed in the war with Austria, constituted a threat to French dominance on the continent of Europe."

"The Franco Prussian War." The Franco Prussian War. International World History Project, n.d.    Web. 12 Feb. 2015.
1871. Photograph. Paris, France. Francoprussianwar. 6 Sept. 2009. Web. 14 Feb. 2015.

october 7, 1879

"Alliance Treaty Between Germany and Austria: the cornerstone of Bismarck's foreign policy and alliance system was concluded for 5 years, renewed quinquennially until 1918; terms: if either party attacked by Russia the other would come to their partner's aid with all possible forces; if attacked by some other power its partner would at least remain neutral; if the other power was aided by Russia, then each treaty partner was obliged to aid the other (note this condition for the 1914 case of Serbia being supported by Russia)."

Mowbray, James. "Preceding the Outbreak of War." The Great War. James Mowbray, n.d. Web. 15    Feb. 2015.
Kirshner, Sheldon. "MacMillan Writes Magisterial Account of Origins of World War I." Sheldon    Kirshner. Sheldon Kirshner, 5 Mar. 2014. Web. 17 Feb. 2015.

june 15, 1888

"Wilhelm’s father became Kaiser Frederick III of Germany in March 1888. Already ill with terminal throat cancer, he died after a reign of only several months. Wilhelm succeeded his father on June 15, 1888, at the age of 29." During Wilhelm II's rule, Germany's political position only goes downhill, unfortunately.

History.com, Staff. "Kaiser Wilhelm II." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2010. Web. 13 Feb.    2015.

march 18,1890

Kaiser Wilhelm II removes Otto von Bismarck from power by making him resign. "The election of 1890 was a disaster for Bismarck. The Centre, the Social Democrats, and the Progressives, the parties that he had termed enemies of the empire, gained more than half of the seats in the new Reichstag. The new young emperor William (Wilhelm) II, who was emperor and king of Prussia from 1888 to 1918, did not want to begin his reign with a bloodbath or a coup d'état by the state. Seventy-five years old in 1890, Bismarck resigned with a sense of having failed. The antisocialist law was not revived, and the new government set out to win the workers to the regime. Bismarck retired to his estate an embittered man."

Barkin, Kenneth. "Otto Von Bismarck (1815-1898)." Otto Von Bismarck (1815-1898). The Latin           Library, n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2015.
Myshkin, Lev. "Otto Von Bismarck." Otto Von Bismarck. The Global Dispatches, 2 Jan. 2012. Web. 15    Feb. 2015.

1894

"dual Alliance, also called Franco-Russian Alliance, a political and military pact that developed between France and Russia from friendly contacts in 1891 to a secret treaty in 1894; it became one of the basic European alignments of the pre-World War I era....The new alliance was to be in force as long as the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, and its terms were to be secret. It provided that in the event of an attack on France by Germany or by Italy supported by Germany, Russia would field 700,000 to 800,000 men to fight Germany; in the event of an attack on Russia by Germany or by Austria-Hungary supported by Germany, France would field 1,300,000 men to fight Germany. Provisions for specific military plans and organizations were also made. The alliance was renewed and strengthened in 1899 and 1912."

The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Dual Alliance | Europe [1894]." Encyclopedia Britannica    Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 21 Sept. 2006. Web. 16 Feb. 2015.

1897

"Germany had been preparing for war long before 1914. In fact, Germany had started drawing up a plan for war - the Schlieffen Plan - in 1897. It took nine years to finalise, but it was based on the theory that Germany would be at war with France and Russia at the same time. It did not prepare for many of the events that occured in July and August 1914. It was based on the belief that, if the country went to war, Germany would be faced with a war on two fronts with France and Russia."

"The Schlieffen Plan." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2015.
David. "Northwest Europe, 1914, Western Front, The Schlieffen Plan and the French Plan." The    Patriot Files Forums. The Patriot Files, 1 Aug. 2009. Web. 21 Feb. 2015.

june 28, 1904

"By 1904 Britain began talks with Russia and decided that it should come out of its 'splendid isolation', joining the Entente Cordiale ('Friendly Agreement'). By 1907, Foreign Minister Sir Edward Grey negotiated Britain into the Triple Entente, and united three old enemies. In contrast to the Triple Alliance, the terms of the Entente did not require each country to go to war on behalf of the others, but stated that they had a 'moral obligation' to support each other....The Entente was created to balance the growing power of Germany by being more powerful itself."

"The Road to War: The Triple Entente." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.

october 6, 1908

"At last Austria annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina, which enraged Serbia, Montenegro, and Russia. Germany, though not forewarned, loyally supported Austria, while France and Britain supported Russia. The lines were clearly being drawn in the sand." The image shows Serbs protesting Bosnia's annexation.

Mowbray, James. "Preceding the Outbreak of War." The Great War. James Mowbray, n.d. Web. 15    Feb. 2015.
"Austria-Hungary Annexes Bosnia (1908)." Austria-Hungary Annexes Bosnia. Historical Boys'    Clothing, 22 Oct. 2012. Web. 22 Feb. 2015.

june 28, 1914

Archduke Francis Ferdinand was the heir to the Austrian-Hungarian throne. After multiple attempts on his life, on June 28, 1904, he is finally assassinated by a member of a secret nationalist society of Serbs called the Black Hand, named Gavrilo Princip. He is shot in the neck in the Bosnian city of Saravejo while in town with his wife, Sophie. They died within an hour of being shot. Ferdinand's death was one of the events that drove Austria-Hungary to go to war against Serbia.

"Franz Ferdinand." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2015.

july 23, 1914

After the assasssination of Francis Ferdinand, Austria-Hungary seeked Germany's support in a potential war. The Germans answered with the "blank check," guaranteeing their support no matter the situation. "Strengthened by German support, Austrian leaders issued an ultimatum to Serbia on July 23 in which they made such extreme demands that Serbia had little choice but to reject some of them in order to preserve its soverignity." The Austrian leaders agreed to all but one term.

International Herald Tribune. "1914: Note to Servia May Prompt War." IHT Retrospective 1914     Note to Servia May Prompt War Comments. The New York Times, 24 July 2014. Web. 20 Feb.     2015.

july 28, 1914

Austria-Hungary declares war upon Serbia. A month before the declaration of war, a Serb had assassinated the heir to the Austrian-Hungarian throne, Archduke Francis Ferdinand. Austria-Hungary then gave Serbia an ultimatum. The Serbians agreed to all of its terms but one. However, since the Serbians did not agree to all of the terms, Austria-Hungary finally declared war. This event marks the beginning of World War I.

"Austria-Hungary Declares War on Serbia." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 19    Feb. 2015.
"WW1 Dispatches: War Declared Today by Austria." Thestar.com. Toronto Star Newspapers Ltd.,    28 June 2014. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.

august 1, 1914

"On August 1, 1914, four days after Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, two more great European powers—Russia and Germany—declare war on each other; the same day, France orders a general mobilization. The so-called "Great War" that ensued would be one of unprecedented destruction and loss of life, resulting in the deaths of some 20 million soldiers and civilians and the physical devastation of much of the European continent."

"First World War Erupts in Europe." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2015.
"The Washington Times., July 31, 1914, HOME EDITION." News about Chronicling America. Ed. Library    of Congress. The Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2015.

august 4, 1914

"On August 4, 1914, German troops under Erich Ludendorff crossed the border into Belgium, in violation of that country’s neutrality. In the first battle of World War I, the Germans assaulted the heavily fortified city of Liege, using the most powerful weapons in their arsenal–enormous siege cannons–to capture the city by August 15. Leaving death and destruction in their wake, including the shooting of civilians and the deliberate execution of Belgian priest, whom they accused of inciting civilian resistance, the Germans advanced through Belgium towards France."

History.com, Staff. "World War I History." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 11    Feb. 2015.
"5 Reasons for the US Entry into World War I." History Lists. History Lists, n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2015.

august 4, 1914

Due to Germany's invasion of Belgium, English leaders are enraged. Since Germany had attacked a neutral country, England joined the Great War. On August 4, England finally declared war against Germany.

The British Newspaper Archive. "Historic Headlines: Great Britain Joins World War One on 4    August 1914." The British Newspaper Archive. DC Thomson Family History, 30 July 2014. Web.    22 Feb. 2015.

august 26, 1914

The Battle of Tannenberg takes place. "This battle between the Russian Second Army (230,000 troops) and the smaller German Eighth Army (150,000 troops) was markedly different to most of the battles of the Western Front in that it was a fast moving affair with the Germans employing brilliant military tactics to inflict a massive defeat on the much larger Russian force.....On 28 August, the Germans had driven between the Russian First and Second armies and Samsonov gradually became aware that his force had become surrounded by German troops.... Despite considerable numerical superiority the Russian Second Army was trapped and the Germans went for the coup de grace, virtually destroying the entire Russian force with artillery fire and coordinated infantry attacks. An estimated 78,000 Russians were killed or wounded and over 90,000 taken prisoner, compared to only 12,000 German casualties."

"Battle of Tannenberg." H100. Foxtel Management Pty Ltd., 2014. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.

september 5, 1914

The First Battle of Marne takes place northeast of Paris. This battle famously marks the beginning of the use of trench warfare. "The World War I First Battle of the Marne featured the first use of radio intercepts and automotive transport of troops in wartime.... By Sept. 10, the Germans embarked on a retreat that ended north of the Aisne River, beginning a phase of the war that would be marked by trench warfare....The Anglo-French victory had been due in part to the fact that the Germans had outrun their logistics and their heavy artillery, used to crushing advantage in earlier battles."

History.com, Staff. "First Battle of Marne." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 10       Feb. 2015.
Duffy, Michael. "Firstworldwar.com." First World War.com. First World War.com, 22 Aug. 2009.    Web. 10 Feb. 2015.

november 3, 1914

"...one of the largest and most sophisticated undertakings of the war was conducted mainly at sea. This operation was the British blockade from 1914-1919 which sought to obstruct Germany's ability to import goods, and thus in the most literal sense starve the German people and military into submission....The British blockade of Germany from 1914-1919 was one of the largest and most complex undertakings attempted by either side during the First World War. While Britain employed considerable resources in other areas of the conflict, the blockade became the source of the United Kingdom's greatest efforts during the war."

Janeki, David A. "The British Blockade During World War I: The Weapon of Deprivation." Student    Pulse. Student Pulse, 2014. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.

december 25, 1914

The famous Christmas Truce of 1914 takes place. Leading up to Christmas, British soldiers heard Germans singing Christmas carols in the distance. The two sides sang together and even complemented each other on their singing. Then, a few German soldiers rose out of their trench and approached the British, shouting holiday greetings in English. After seeing that the Germans were unarmed, some British soldiers climbed out to meet them, shake hands, and call a momentary truce. The men were reported to have given each other presents, sung carols, and played a match of soccer. The next day, the war was back on. When the officers of the soldiers found out about the truce, they were outraged. A truce like this never happened again, and this event is considered one of the last instances in the war during which the humanity of soldiers was shown.

Cleaver, Alan, and Lesley Park. "The Christmas Truce." The Christmas Truce. Operation Plum    Puddings, n.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2015.
Stansfield, Rachel. "Christmas Truce 1914." My Royal Mail. The Royal Mail, 16 Dec. 2014. Web. 8 Feb.    2015.

april 22, 1915

"The Second Battle of Ypres, as it is known in British military history, encompassed four battles in the northern sector of the Ypres Salient. The first of these began on 22nd April 1915 as a surprise attack by the German 4th Army on the French sector of the Allied Front Line. This attack witnessed the first use of a new German weapon on the Western Front: a cloud of poisonous gas. Its deadly effect was carried on a gentle breeze towards French troops and as a result of its devastating effect on the French the German infantry made a significant advance into Allied territory within a few hours. During the following four weeks after the surprise gas cloud attack the Allied Forces of Belgium, France and Britain fought to hold off the successful German advance and to regain the ground that had been lost north of Ypres. The battle ended on 25th May 1915."

"The Second Battle of Ypres, 1915." The Second Battle of Ypres, 1915. The Great War, n.d. Web. 23    Feb. 2015.
Duffy, Michael. "Firstworldwar.com." First World War.com. First World War.com, 22 Aug. 2009.    Web. 23 Feb. 2015.

april 25, 1915

The Gallipoli Campaign lasted from April 25, 1915 to January 9, 1916. The initial intent of the British was to defeat the Ottoman Empire's forces at the Gallipoli Peninsula, take the Dardanelles Strait, and deliver supplies to the Russian army. Fortunately for the Turks, Gallipoli was quite easy to defend. It was clear that the British would not win this battle, but they could not bear to admit defeat; therefore they stayed to fight until january. after suffering so many casualties and accomplishing nothing worth their efforts, the british packed up and set sail for home. the campaign resulted in more than 250,000 casualties on the British side and about 250,000 casualities on the Turkish side.

Duffy, Michael. "Firstworldwar.com." First World War.com. First World War.com, 22 Aug. 2009.    Web. 21 Feb. 2015.

april 26,1915

"Italy had been allied with the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires since 1882 as part of the Triple Alliance. When the war broke out, they did not join on the side of the Triple Alliance. Italy argued that the Triple Alliance was defensive in nature, and that Austria-Hungary now was an aggressor. Italy remained neutral the first year of the war, but in April 1915 they joined on the side of the Triple Entente, breaking their bonds with the Triple Alliance."

Rindal, Ole. "WWI - Timeline." First World War. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2015.

may 7, 1915

"On May 7, 1915, less than a year after World War I (1914-18) erupted across Europe, a German U-boat torpedoed and sank the RMS Lusitania, a British ocean liner en route from New York to Liverpool, England. Of the more than 1,900 passengers and crew members on board, more than 1,100 perished, including more than 120 Americans. Nearly two years would pass before the United States formally entered World War I, but the sinking of the Lusitania played a significant role in turning public opinion against Germany, both in the United States and abroad."

History.com, Staff. "Lusitania." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 19 Feb. 2015.

august 6, 1915

The Battle of the Lone Pine took place in 1915 from August 6 to august 10 on the Gallipoli Peninsula during the Gallipoli Campaign. The opposing sides of this particular battle were Australia and the Ottoman Empire. The purpose of the battle was to make the Turks believe the main battle was at Lone Pine and drive the Turks to put most of their resources toward the battle at Lone Pine instead of where the main battle was to take place: Chunuk Bair and Koja Temen Tepe. On August 6, ANZAC took the Turks by surprise and bombarded the Turkish trenches for an hour. Then, the ANZAC and the Turkish soldiers fought with hand grenades and in hand-to-hand combat. The Australians won the battle, but suffered great losses. Nearly half of the 4,600 men sent to fight for Australia had lost their lives while the Ottoman losses came to about 5,000-6,000 men.

"The Battle of Lone Pine." Gallipoli and the Anzacs. Australian Government Department of    Veterans' Affairs, 2010. Web. 19 Feb. 2015.

february 21,1916

"On 21 February 1916, the Battle of Verdun began....The Battle of Verdun wound down, then fizzled out entirely, officially ending on 18 December 1916. The French, under the stewardship of Generals Pétain and Nivelle regained much of what they had lost. After ten months of fighting, the city had been flattened, and the Germans and French, between them, had lost 260,000 men – one death for every 90 seconds of the battle. Men on all sides were bled to death but ultimately, Falkenhayn’s big push achieved nothing."

History in an Hour. "Battle of Verdun - History in an Hour." History in an Hour. History in an    Hour, 20 Feb. 2012. Web. 21 Feb. 2015.

may 31, 1916

"Involving some 250 ships and 100,000 men, this battle off Denmark’s North Sea coast was the only major naval surface engagement of World War I. The battle began in the afternoon of May 31, 1916, with gunfire between the German and British scouting forces. When the main warships met, British Admiral John Jellicoe maneuvered his boats to take advantage of the fading daylight, scoring dozens of direct hits that eventually forced German Admiral Reinhard Scheer into retreat. Both sides claimed victory in this indecisive battle, though Britain retained control of the North Sea."

History.com, Staff. "Battle of Jutland." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 20 Feb.    2015.
"Battle of Jutland 1916." World War I Remembrance. St. Matthews RC High School, n.d. Web. 22    Feb. 2015.

July 1,1916

The Battle of the Somme took place 150 miles northwest of Verdun where the British and the French Armies met at the Somme River. During this battle, the British army suffered immense losses; 60,000 casualities resulted from a single day of battle. By the end of the battle, the combined losses of the British and French armies were around 0.75 million.

History.com, Staff. "Battle of the Somme." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 20    Feb. 2015.
"British-machine-gun-unit." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.         http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-i/world-war-i-history/pictures/world-war-i-trench-warfare/british-machine-gun-unit

july, 1916

"Tanks were also introduced to the battlefields of Europe in 1916. The first tank-A British model-used caterpillar tracks, which enabled it to move across rought terrain. Armed with mounted juns, tanks would attack enemy machine-gun positions as well as enemy infantry."

Duiker, William J., and Jackson J. Spielvogel. "Chapter 23." World History. 7th ed. Belmont, CA:    Wadsworth, 2013. 666-77. Print.
Lighter, Jonathan. "How World War I Gave Us 'cooties' - CNN.com." CNN. Cable News Network, 25    June 2014. Web. 19 Feb. 2015.

january, 1917

"In 1917, German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmermann sent a telegram to Mexico suggesting that if the US should declare war on Germany, Mexico should declare war on the US In return, Mexico would get back the territory lost in the Mexican-American War (Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona). Unfortunately for Germany, the telegram was intercepted by the British and hurriedly given to the Americans. Although Mexico had no real intention of declaring war on the US, the publication of the letter further mobilized the American people against the Central Powers."

"5 Reasons for the US Entry into World War I." History Lists. History Lists, n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2015.

january 31, 1917

"On this day in 1917, the lethal threat of the German U-boat submarine raises its head again, as Germany returns to the policy of unrestricted submarine warfare it had previously suspended in response to pressure from the United States and other neutral countries....On January 31, 1917, Bethmann Hollweg went before the German Reichstag government and made the announcement that unrestricted submarine warfare would resume the next day, February 1."

"Germany Resumes Unrestricted Submarine Warfare." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2015.
Submarine Warfare. 1915. Photograph. English Waters. PB Works. PB Works, 8 Nov. 2010. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.

april 6, 1917

The United States officially enters World War I two days after Congress voted on declaring war on Germany, with 82 in favor and 6 against. Great Britain had previously been buying US arms for millions of dollars for themselves and their allies, so America's entry in the war essentially stopped Great Britain and the rest of the Entente from going bankrupt.

"U.S. Enters World War I." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2015. Web. 11 Feb. 2015.

march 15, 1917

"During the February Revolution, Czar Nicholas II, ruler of Russia since 1894, is forced to abdicate the throne by the Petrograd insurgents, and a provincial government is installed in his place.... In 1914, Nicholas led his country into another costly war, and discontent in Russia grew as food became scarce, soldiers became war-weary, and devastating defeats on the eastern front demonstrated the czar's ineffectual leadership. In March 1917, the army garrison at Petrograd joined striking workers in demanding socialist reforms, and Czar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate. Nicholas and his family were first held at the Czarskoye Selo palace, then in the Yekaterinburg palace near Tobolsk. In July 1918, the advance of counterrevolutionary forces caused the Yekaterinburg Soviet forces to fear that Nicholas might be rescued. After a secret meeting, a death sentence was passed on the imperial family, and Nicholas, his wife, his children, and several of their servants were gunned down on the night of July 16."

"Tsar Nicholas II and His Effects on the Russian Revolution of 1917." Schoolworkhelper. St.    Rosemary Educational Institution, 05 July 2011. Web. 21 Feb. 2015.
"Czar Nicholas II Abdicates." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2015. Web. 21 Feb. 2015.

august 17, 1917

"The first action on the Eastern Front, the Battle of Stalluponen (in present day Lithuania) was fought by a corps of the German Eighth Army against Russian General Rennenkampf's First Army.....Rennenkampf's forces marched into East Prussia on 17 August 1914, following cavalry probes conducted five days earlier, the same day that General Hermann von Francois, commander of I Corps - attached to General von Prittwitz's Eighth Army - brought them to action. Launching a frontal attack, the aggressive Francois drove the Russians back to the frontier, snapping up 3,000 prisoners in the process."

Duffy, Michael. "The Battle of Stalluponen." First World War.com. Michael Duffy, 22 Aug. 2009.    Web. 15 Feb. 2015.

january 8, 1918

"In early January 1918, both British prime minister David Lloyd George and American president Woodrow Wilson issued public explanations of what they hoped to accomplish through a victory over the Central Powers. Wilson received input from his closest advisor, Colonel Edward House, and a number of academics, who were known as "The Inquiry." The resulting Fourteen Points were presented in a speech before both houses of Congress and were intended to generate support for Wilson’s vision of the postwar world, both at home and also among allies in Europe. Further, the president hoped that the promise of a just peace would be embraced by the populations in enemy nations and generate momentum for ending the war."

"The Fourteen Points." The Fourteen Points. US History, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.
Woodrow Wilson, 14 Point Plan. 1918. Photograph. Washington, D.C., USA. Writeawriting.com.    Write a Writing, 29 July 2006. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.

march 3, 1918

"On March 3, 1918, in the city of Brest-Litovsk, located in modern-day Belarus near the Polish border, Russia signs a treaty with the Central Powers ending its participation in World War I....By the terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Russia recognized the independence of Ukraine, Georgia and Finland; gave up Poland and the Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia to Germany and Austria-Hungary; and ceded Kars, Ardahan and Batum to Turkey. The total losses constituted 1 million square miles of Russia's former territory; a third of its population or 55 million people; a majority of its coal, oil and iron stores; and much of its industry. Lenin, who bitterly called the settlement that abyss of defeat, dismemberment, enslavement and humiliation, was forced to hope that the spread of world revolution—his greatest dream—would eventually right the wrongs done at Brest-Litovsk."

"Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Concluded." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2015. Web. 22 Feb.    2015.
The Treaty of Brest Litovsk. 1918. Photograph. Brest Litovsk. The History Man at Large.com. 4    Dec. 2005. Web. 22 Feb. 2015.

july 15, 1918

"In what began as the last major German offensive of the First World War, the Second Battle of the Marne developed into a significant Allied victory. After it became clear that the Germans had not only failed in their aim to win the war in this offensive, but had in fact lost ground, a number of German commanders, including Crown Prince Wilhelm, believed the war was lost....The battle took place over the course of 15 July-5 August 1918, in the final year of the war. Erich Ludendorff, effectively the German Chief-of-Staff (although Paul von Hindenburg was the ostensible commander), was convinced that the war could best be won by an attack in Flanders. To that end he determined to lure Allied forces from Belgium to the Marne in a huge diversionary attack, preparatory to a renewed offensive further north."

Duffy, Michael. "The Second Battle of the Marne, 1918." First World War.com. Michael Duffy, 22    Aug. 2009. Web. 11 Feb. 2015.

august 8, 1918

"The Battle of Amiens was an Allied victory that helped bring an end to World War I. Following the Second Battle of the Marne, the Allies launched an attack in August 1918 with a force of 75,000 men, more than 500 tanks and nearly 2,000 planes. The offensive achieved huge gains on the first day, with Allied troops and tanks advancing eight miles and causing 27,000 casualties. Although the German resistance stiffened and the fighting was over after a few days, the battle convinced many in the German high command that victory in the war was unattainable."

History.com, Staff. "Battle of Amiens." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 17 Feb.    2015.

october 23, 1918

"The Battle of Vittorio Veneto was the last decisive battle in northern Italy of World War One. The Italian victory at Vittorio Veneto also effectively signalled the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Without an army to support it, the governing regime that controlled the empire collapsed and the empire fragmented....The Italian offensive against Austro-Hungarian forces at Vittorio Veneto was launched on October 23rd 1918. Vittorio Veneto was chosen as the primary target as the town’s capture would split the Austro-Hungarians in two....In just ten days into the campaign, the Italians had recaptured much lost land. The Austrians lost 35,000 dead, 100,000 wounded and taken 300,000 prisoners-of-war ... After fighting across a front that measured 56 kilometres and advancing 24 kilometres, the Italians lost just 5,800 men killed and 26,000 wounded. A truce was signed on November 2nd, which was formalised on November 4th. Without a properly functioning army to support it, the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed and fragmented into various nation states."

"The Battle of Vittorio Veneto." The Battle of Vittorio Veneto. History Learning Site, n.d. Web. 22    Feb. 2015.
The Battle of Vittorio Veneto. 1918. Photograph. Vittorio Veneto. Iwm.org. Imperial War           Museums, 28 Aug. 2010. Web. 22 Feb. 2015.

november 11, 1918

"At the 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, the Great War ends. At 5 a.m. that morning, Germany, bereft of manpower and supplies and faced with imminent invasion, signed an armistice agreement with the Allies in a railroad car outside Compiégne, France. The First World War left nine million soldiers dead and 21 million wounded, with Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, France, and Great Britain each losing nearly a million or more lives. In addition, at least five million civilians died from disease, starvation, or exposure."

History.com, Staff. "World War I Ends." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 12 Feb.    2015.
"The New York Times: Monday November 11, 1918." TimesMachine: Monday November 11, 1918. The    New York Times, n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.

november 9, 1918

On November 9, 1918, Chancellor Prince Max von Baden announced Kaiser Wilhelm II's abdication. As a result of the Great War and the serious possibility that a revolution may occur in Germany, many people wanted him to give up his throne. His abdication was formally and publically announced on november 30 in berlin. Wilhelm II was exiled to Holland and spent the rest of his life there.

Duffy, Michael. "Kaiser Wilhelm II's Abdication Proclamation, 28 November 1918." First World    War.com. Michael Duffy, 22 Aug. 2009. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.
Mombauer, Annika, Dr. "Kaiser Wilhelm II: From Early Years to Exile." OpenLearn. The Open Learn    University, 16 Dec. 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.

june 28, 1919

"World War I officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919. Negotiated among the Allied powers with little participation by Germany, its 15 parts and 440 articles reassigned German boundaries and assigned liability for reparations. After strict enforcement for five years, the French assented to the modification of important provisions. Germany agreed to pay reparations under the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan, but those plans were cancelled in 1932, and Hitler’s rise to power and subsequent actions rendered moot the remaining terms of the treaty."

History.com, Staff. "Treaty of Versailles." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 10    Feb. 2015.