Mecham, Dave. "Holocaust Survivor Shown in Iconic Photo Meets Researcher Captivated by Image." KTLA5. KTLA, 05 Dec. 2014. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.
Bender, Jeremy. "69 Years Ago, A Relatively-Unknown Photographer Captured The Most Iconic Photo Of WWII." Business Insider. Business Insider, Inc, 23 Feb. 2014. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.
http://www.czk.fr/
A TIMELINE BY CALANTHA WU

August 2,1934

"With the death of German President Paul von Hindenburg, Chancellor Adolf Hitler becomes absolute dictator of Germany under the title of Führer, or 'Leader.' The German army took an oath of allegiance to its new commander-in-chief, and the last remnants of Germany’s democratic government were dismantled to make way for Hitler’s Third Reich. The Führer assured his people that the Third Reich would last for a thousand years, but Nazi Germany collapsed just 11 years later."

History.com, Staff. "Hitler Becomes Fuhrer." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.
Wright, Shauna. "This Day in History for August 2 – Hitler Becomes Fuhrer and More - TSM Interactive." TSM Interactive. TSM Interactive, 1 Aug. 2012. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.

March 1,1938

"On March 11–13, 1938, German troops invade Austria and incorporate Austria into the German Reich in what is known as the Anschluss." "Hitler wanted all German-speaking nations in Europe to be a part of Germany. To this end, he had designs on re-uniting Germany with his native homeland, Austria.... In an attempt to realise his goals, Hitler was determined to destabilise Austria and undermine its independence. His ultimate goal was anschluss (union) with Austria....German troops marched into Austria unopposed. Hitler now had control of Austria. A month later, Hitler held a rigged referendum. The results showed that the Austrian people approved of German control of their country."

BBC. "Hitler's Plans for Austria." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2015.
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "German Annexation of Austria." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2015.

September 1,1939

"On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. The Polish army was defeated within weeks of the invasion. From East Prussia and Germany in the north and Silesia and Slovakia in the south, German units, with more than 2,000 tanks and over 1,000 planes, broke through Polish defenses along the border and advanced on Warsaw in a massive encirclement attack. After heavy shelling and bombing, Warsaw surrendered to the Germans on September 27, 1939."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Invasion of Poland, Fall 1939." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 20 June 2014. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.

May 27, 1940

On May 27, 1940, the evacuation of Dunkirk began. It was evident that the Allied forces were losing against the German army. In order to give Britain the chance to fight again, the people of Dunkirk and the military rallied to transport as many soldiers as possible to safety. The sea was covered in every sea-worthy craft available. Over 300,000 soldiers, mostly British and some French, were rescued and lived to fight another day.

Montefiore, Hugh Sebag. "Slaughtered in Cold Blood - the Brave British Soldiers Who Were Dunkirk's TRUE Heroes." Mail Online. Associated Newspapers, 27 May 2010. Web. 19 Apr. 2015.

June 22,1940

About a month after the German army invaded France, 3 million German troops and Mussolini's forces advanced toward France. The capital of France, Paris, was taken on June 14, 1940. On June 22, France surrendered with the signing of an armistice Marsal Henry Petain signed with the Nazis. The armistice went into effect on June 25, and gave Germany more than half of France's land. Later, Vichy France was established.

History.com, Staff. "France to Surrender." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 17 Apr. 2015.

June 22,1941

"Under the codename Operation "Barbarossa," Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, in the largest German military operation of World War II....With 134 Divisions at full fighting strength and 73 more divisions for deployment behind the front, German forces invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, less than two years after the German-Soviet Pact was signed."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Invasion of the Soviet Union, June 1941." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 20 June 2014. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.

December 7,1941

"Just before 8 a.m. on December 7, 1941, hundreds of Japanese fighter planes attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor near Honolulu, Hawaii. The barrage lasted just two hours, but it was devastating: The Japanese managed to destroy nearly 20 American naval vessels, including eight enormous battleships, and almost 200 airplanes. More than 2,000 Americans soldiers and sailors died in the attack, and another 1,000 were wounded."

History.com, Staff. "Pearl Harbor." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.
The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Pearl Harbor Attack | Japanese-United States History." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 4 Dec. 2014. Web. 16 Apr. 2015.

December 8,1941

On December 8, 1941, the day after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan. All but one member of Congress, Jeanette Rankin of Montana, voted to declare war on Japan, thus entering World War II. Isolationism came to an end with the shock and anger Americans experienced due to the destruction of Pearl Harbor.

Kluckhohn, Frank L. "U.S. DECLARES WAR, PACIFIC BATTLE WIDENS." The New York Times 8 Dec. 1941: 1. Print.

February 19, 1942

"On February 19, 1942, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which forced all Japanese-Americans, regardless of loyalty or citizenship, to evacuate the West Coast. No comparable order applied to Hawaii, one-third of whose population was Japanese-American, or to Americans of German and Italian ancestry. Ten internment camps were established in California, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado, and Arkansas, eventually holding 120,000 persons. "

"My Plea
Oh God, I pray that I may bear a cross
To set my people free,
That I may help to take good-will across
An understanding sea.

Oh, God, I pray that someday every race
May stand on equal plane
And prejudice will find no dwelling place
In a peace that all may gain.
-Mary Matsuzawa"

History.com, Staff. "Japanese-American Relocation." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 26 Apr. 2015.
Ushistory.org. "Japanese-American Internment." Ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2015.
Friedler, Sorelle. "World War II Poetry." World War II Poetry. Sorelle Friedler, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2015.

April 9, 1942

"After the April 9, 1942, U.S. surrender of the Bataan Peninsula on the main Philippine island of Luzon to the Japanese during World War II (1939-45), the approximately 75,000 Filipino and American troops on Bataan were forced to make an arduous 65-mile march to prison camps. The marchers made the trek in intense heat and were subjected to harsh treatment by Japanese guards. Thousands perished in what became known as the Bataan Death March."

History.com, Staff. "Bataan Death March." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 24 Apr. 2015.
Thompson, Jan. "Tragedy of Bataan." Tragedy of Bataan. Jan Thompson, 2011. Web. 24 Apr. 2015

May 6,1942

"On this day in 1942, U.S. Lieutenant General Jonathan Wainwright surrenders all U.S. troops in the Philippines to the Japanese.... Although still managing to sink many Japanese barges as they approached the northern shores of the island, the Allied troops could hold the invader off no longer. General Wainwright, only recently promoted to the rank of lieutenant general and commander of the U.S. armed forces in the Philippines, offered to surrender Corregidor to Japanese General Homma, but Homma wanted the complete, unconditional capitulation of all American forces throughout the Philippines. Wainwright had little choice given the odds against him and the poor physical condition of his troops (he had already lost 800 men). He surrendered at midnight. All 11,500 surviving Allied troops were evacuated to a prison stockade in Manila."

History.com, Staff. "All American Forces in the Philippines Surrender Unconditionally." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 25 Apr. 2015.

February 2,1943

"After months of fierce fighting and heavy casualties, German forces (numbering now only about 91,000 surviving soldiers) surrender at Stalingrad on the Volga. Soviet forces launched a counteroffensive against the Germans arrayed at Stalingrad in mid-November 1942. They quickly encircled an entire German army, more than 220,000 soldiers. In February 1943, after months of fierce fighting and heavy casualties, the surviving German forces—only about 91,000 soldiers—surrendered."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "German Defeat at Stalingrad." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2015.

October 18,1943

"SOMEWHERE IN AUSTRALIA. General MacArthur's communique today announces the destruction of 104 Japanese planes in a series of air raids from New Guinea to the Solomor. The biggest attack was at Oro Bay, south of Buna (Papua), where, says the communique, a force of 26 Japanese bombers and 20 fighters was destroyed. Thirty-two other enemy aircraft were destroyed combat in northern New Guinea. 16 near Wewak and over Madang. Allied losses in all operations are reported to have been very light."

"Japanese Lose 140 Planes in Battle." Barrier Mine [Broken Hill, NSW] 18 Oct. 1943, 16656th ed.: 1. Print."Japanese Lose 140 Planes in Battle." Barrier Mine [Broken Hill, NSW] 18 Oct. 1943, 16656th ed.: 1. Print.

June 6, 1944

"During World War II (1939-1945), the Battle of Normandy, which lasted from June 1944 to August 1944, resulted in the Allied liberation of Western Europe from Nazi Germany’s control. Codenamed Operation Overlord, the battle began on June 6, 1944, also known as D-Day, when some 156,000 American, British and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of France’s Normandy region. The invasion was one of the largest amphibious military assaults in history and required extensive planning. Prior to D-Day, the Allies conducted a large-scale deception campaign designed to mislead the Germans about the intended invasion target. By late August 1944, all of northern France had been liberated, and by the following spring the Allies had defeated the Germans. The Normandy landings have been called the beginning of the end of war in Europe."

History.com, Staff. "D-Day." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.

December 16, 1944

On December 16, 1944, the Battle of the Bulge began. "In December 1944, Adolph Hitler attempted to split the Allied armies in northwest Europe by means of a surprise blitzkrieg thrust through the Ardennes to Antwerp. Caught off-guard, American units fought desperate battles to stem the German advance at St.-Vith, Elsenborn Ridge, Houffalize and Bastogne. As the Germans drove deeper into the Ardennes in an attempt to secure vital bridgeheads, the Allied line took on the appearance of a large bulge, giving rise to the battle’s name. Lieutenant General George S. Patton’s successful maneuvering of the Third Army to Bastogne proved vital to the Allied defense, leading to the neutralization of the German counteroffensive despite heavy casualties."

History.com, Staff. "Battle of the Bulge." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 29 Apr. 2015.

February 19, 1945

"U.S. Marines invaded Iwo Jima on February 19, 1945, after months of naval and air bombardment. The Japanese defenders of the island were dug into bunkers deep within the volcanic rocks. Approximately 70,000 U.S. Marines and 18,000 Japanese soldiers took part in the battle. In thirty-six days of fighting on the island, nearly 7,000 U.S. Marines were killed. Another 20,000 were wounded. Marines captured only 216 Japanese soldiers; the rest were killed in action. The island was finally declared secured on March 16, 1945. It had been one of the bloodiest battles in Marine Corps history. After the battle, Iwo Jima served as an emergency landing site for more than 2,200 B-29 bombers, saving the lives of 24,000 U.S. airmen. "

The National WWII Museum. "Iwo Jima at a Glance." The National WWII Museum. The National WWII Museum, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.
Bender, Jeremy. "69 Years Ago, A Relatively-Unknown Photographer Captured The Most Iconic Photo Of WWII." Business Insider. Business Insider, Inc, 23 Feb. 2014. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.

April 30,1945

"Der Führer, Adolf Hitler, dictator of Germany, burrowed away in a refurbished air-raid shelter, consumes a cyanide capsule, then shoots himself with a pistol, on this day in 1945, as his “1,000-year” Reich collapses above him....Warned by officers that the Russians were only a day or so from overtaking the chancellery and urged to escape to Berchtesgarden, a small town in the Bavarian Alps where Hitler owned a home, the dictator instead chose suicide."

History.com, Staff. "Adolf Hitler Commits Suicide in His Underground Bunker." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 30 Apr. 2015.
Rice, Bob. "May, 1945 - The Death of Adolph Hitler by Suicide on April 30 - WW2 Cartoons." WW2 Cartoons. Bob Rice, 2007. Web. 30 Apr. 2015.

May 7,1945

"German armed forces surrender unconditionally in the west. Soviet forces encircled Berlin, the German capital on April 25, 1945. That same day, Soviet forces linked up with their American counterparts attacking from the west in central Germany (Torgau). After heavy fighting, Soviet forces neared Adolf Hitler’s command bunker in central Berlin....German armed forces surrendered unconditionally in the west on May 7 and in the east on May 9, 1945. "

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "German Surrender." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.

August 6,1945

"On August 6, 1945, during World War II (1939-45), an American B-29 bomber dropped the world’s first deployed atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The explosion wiped out 90 percent of the city and immediately killed 80,000 people; tens of thousands more would later die of radiation exposure. Three days later, a second B-29 dropped another A-bomb on Nagasaki, killing an estimated 40,000 people."

History.com, Staff. "Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 23 Apr. 2015.

September 2,1945

On September 2, 1945, representatives of the Japanese Empire formally surrendered. Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signed the document of surrender as representative of the Japanese government and General Yoshijiro Umezu signed as representative of the Japanese armed forces. With the signing of the surrender document at Tokyo Bay, World War II came to a close.

Chan, Bryan. "Surrender aboard U.S. Warship Missouri Ends World War II." Framework. Los Angeles Times, 01 Sept. 2010. Web. 23 Apr. 2015.

November 20, 1945

On November 20, 1945, the first of the Nuremberg Trials began. "Held for the purpose of bringing Nazi war criminals to justice, the Nuremberg trials were a series of 13 trials carried out in Nuremberg, Germany, between 1945 and 1949. The defendants, who included Nazi Party officials and high-ranking military officers along with German industrialists, lawyers and doctors, were indicted on such charges as crimes against peace and crimes against humanity."

History.com, Staff. "Nuremberg Trials." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.
"The Nuremberg Trials." Nazi War Crimes. Nazi War Crimes, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.

January 30,1933

"On 30 January 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany. The supposed one thousand year Reich had started. But it would be another nineteen months before Hitler achieved absolute power.... Germans, fearful of Communists and Jews, looked for an alternative and that alternative lay in Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. In the July 1932 Reichstag elections, the Nazi party gained almost 40% of the vote making it the most powerful party in Germany. There was a slight dip in the elections four months later but the party still had enough electoral clout that Hitler, as dictated by the Weimar constitution, should have been appointed chancellor."

Colley, Rupert. "Hitler Becomes Chancellor - History in an Hour." History in an Hour. Rupert Colley, 29 Jan. 2010. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.

April 1,1933

"Less than 3 months after coming to power in Germany, the Nazi leadership stages an economic boycott targeting Jewish-owned businesses and the offices of Jewish professionals.... Nazi Storm Troopers stood menacingly in front of Jewish-owned department stores and retail establishments, and outside the offices of Jewish professionals, holding signs and shouting slogans such as "Don't Buy from Jews" and "The Jews Are Our Misfortune." Although the national boycott campaign lasted only one day and was ignored by many individual Germans who continued to shop in Jewish-owned stores and seek the services of Jewish professionals, the boycott marked the beginning of a nationwide campaign by the Nazi Party against Jews in Germany that would culminate in the Holocaust."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Anti-Jewish Boycott." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2015.

April 25, 1933

"The German government issues the Law against Overcrowding in Schools and Universities, which dramatically limits the number of Jewish students attending public schools. After Adolf Hitler’s appointment as Chancellor in January 1933, government at every level—national, state, and municipal—began to adopt laws and policies that increasingly restricted the rights of Jews in Germany. This new law limited the number of Jewish students in any one public school to no more than 5 percent of the total student population."

"My Führer (The child speaks)
I know you well and love you dearly
Like father and mother.
I want to always be obedient to you
Like I am to father and mother.
And when I grow up, I will help you,
Like I will father and mother,
You should feel joy because of me,
Like father and mother!"

—Jung-Deutschland: Eine deutsche Fibel. by Otto Zimmermann, B. Hemprich, M. Dalchow, and Eugen Osswald. Braunschweig: G. Westermann, 1935.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Law Limits Jews in Public Schools." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2015.

September 15,1935

"The German parliament (Reichstag) passes the Nuremberg Race Laws. The Nuremberg Race Laws consisted of two pieces of legislation: the Reich Citizenship Law and the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor. A special session of the Nazi-controlled Reichstag passed both laws at the Party’s rally in Nuremberg, Germany. These laws institutionalized many of the racial theories underpinning Nazi ideology and provided the legal framework for the systematic persecution of Jews in Germany. The Nuremberg Race Laws did not identify a 'Jew' as someone with particular religious convictions but instead as someone with three or four Jewish grandparents."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Nuremberg Race Laws." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2015.

July 15,1937

"SS authorities open the Buchenwald concentration camp for male prisoners in east-central Germany. Together with its many satellite camps, Buchenwald was one of the largest concentration camps established within German borders. Women were not part of the Buchenwald camp system until late 1943 or early 1944. An electrified barbed-wire fence, watchtowers, and a chain of sentries outfitted with automatic machine guns, surrounded the main camp. The SS often shot prisoners in the camp stables and hanged other prisoners in the crematorium area."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Buchenwald Concentration Camp Opens." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2015.

November 9,1938

In response to an act of violence against a Nazi officer, a mass riot took place on November 9 of 1938, a day that came to be known as Kristallnacht, the "Night of Broken Glass." Nazi Party officials, members of the SA and the Hitler Youth carry out a wave of violent anti-Jewish pogroms throughout Greater Germany. The rioters destroyed hundreds of synagogues, many of them burned in full view of firefighters and the German public and looted more than 7,000 Jewish-owned businesses and other commercial establishments. Jewish cemeteries became a particular object of desecration in many regions. Almost 100 Jewish residents in Germany lost their lives in the violence."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Kristallnacht." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2015.

November 15,1938

Five years after the limiting of Jews in schools, another law took education from the Jewish youth of Germany. Starting from November 15, 1938, all Jewish children were banned from all German public schools. This was only one of the many acts Nazi Germany would put into effect in an attempt to separate the "Aryan race" and the Jewish people from each other.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Jewish High School Class Group Photograph." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.

December 2, 1938

"Kindertransport (Children's Transport) was the informal name of a series of rescue efforts (organized by Jewish communal groups in Germany and Austria) which brought thousands of refugee Jewish children to Great Britain between 1938 and 1940. Parents or guardians could not accompany the children. The first Kindertransport arrived in Harwich, Great Britain, on December 2, 1938, bringing some 200 children from a Jewish orphanage in Berlin which had been destroyed in the Kristallnacht pogrom. Eventually between 9,000 and 10,000 children were rescued via Kindertransport. Most of these girls and boys would never again see their parents, who were murdered during the Holocaust."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "First Kindertransport Arrives in Great Britain." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2015.

January 30,1939

"Amid rising international tensions Führer and Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler tells the German public and the world that the outbreak of war would mean the end of European Jewry. Inspired by Hitler's theories of racial struggle and the supposed 'intent' of the Jews to survive and expand at the expense of Germans, the Nazis ordered anti-Jewish boycotts, staged book burnings, and enacted anti-Jewish legislation.... To justify the murder of the Jews both to the perpetrators and to bystanders in Germany and Europe, the Nazis used not only racist arguments but also arguments derived from older negative stereotypes, including Jews as communist subversives, as war profiteers and hoarders, and as a danger to internal security because of their inherent disloyalty and opposition to Germany."
"'The Jews of Budapest live in an atmosphere of fear and terror. Anti-Semitic acts take place every day, in the streets, on the trains. The Fascists attack Jewish stores, synagogues. The situation is becoming very serious...'" (Wiesel 9).

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Reichstag Speech." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2015.
Wiesel, Elie, and Marion Wiesel. Night. 1st ed. New York, NY: Hill and Wang, a Division of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006. Print.

September 21,1939

"On September 21, 1939, Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) in the SS, sent the Schnellbrief, a directive that laid out the procedures and treatment towards the Jews in the areas of occupied Poland. It declared that Jews living in towns and villages would be transferred to join larger populations of Jews in the bigger cities, and that Jewish councils, known as “Judenräte”, should be established, whose purpose was to carry out the orders of the German authorities.... The Jews were generally housed in the poorest neighborhoods, and these areas were eventually turned into sealed ghettos, in which the majority of Polish Jewry was incarcerated."

"A small Jewish republic... A Jewish Council was appointed, as well as a Jewish police force, a welfare agency, a labor committee, a health agency - a whole governmental apparatus" (Wiesel 12).

"...I have been here for seven weeks,
'Ghettoized'.
Who loved me have found me,
Daisies call to me,
And the branches also of the white chestnut in the yard.
But I haven't seen a butterfly here.
That last one was the last one.
There are no butterflies, here, in the ghetto."
-Pavel Friedmann, Theresienstadt Concentration Camp, 4 June 1942

Yad Vashem. "The Holocaust: The Ghettos." Holocaust History. Yad Vashem The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2015.
Wiesel, Elie, and Marion Wiesel. Night. 1st ed. New York, NY: Hill and Wang, a Division of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006. Print.
Friedler, Sorelle. "World War II Poetry." World War II Poetry. Sorelle Friedler, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2015.

May 20, 1940

"SS authorities establish the Auschwitz camp. The Auschwitz concentration camp complex was the largest of its kind established by the Nazi regime. It included three main camps, all of which deployed incarcerated prisoners at forced labor. One of them also functioned for an extended period as a killing center. The camps were located approximately 37 miles west of Krakow, near the prewar German-Polish border in Upper Silesia, an area that Nazi Germany annexed in 1939 after invading and conquering Poland."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Auschwitz Camp Established." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.

October 12,1940

"On October 12, 1940, the Germans decreed the establishment of a ghetto in Warsaw. The decree required all Jewish residents of Warsaw to move into a designated area, which German authorities sealed off from the rest of the city in November 1940.... The population of the ghetto, increased by Jews compelled to move in from nearby towns, was estimated to be over 400,000 Jews. German authorities forced ghetto residents to live in an area of 1.3 square miles, with an average of 7.2 persons per room."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Warsaw." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 20 June 2014. Web. 18 Apr. 2015.

September 1,1941

"Reinhard Heydrich decrees that all Jews over six years of age in the Reich, Alsace, Bohemia-Moravia and the German–annexed territory of western Poland (called the Warthegau), are to wear yellow Star of David on their outer clothing in public at all times. The word "Jew" is to be inscribed inside the star in German or the local language. During the Nazi era, German authorities reintroduced the Jewish badge as a key element of their larger plan to persecute and eventually to annihilate the Jewish population of Europe. They used the badge not only to stigmatize and humiliate Jews but also to segregate them, to watch and control their movements, and to prepare for deportation."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Jewish Badge." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2015.
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Nazi Propaganda Poster with a Picture of a Jewish Star and a German Caption That Reads, "Whoever Wears This Symbol Is an Enemy of Our Volk."" USHMM Collections Search. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 15 Mar. 2005. Web. 25 Apr. 2015.

October 15,1941

"Heinrich Himmler tasks the SS and Police Leader in Lublin District, SS General Odilo Globocnik, with implementing what later becomes known as “Operation Reinhard,” the physical annihilation of the Jews residing in the Generalgouvernement. The Operation Reinhard team was ultimately responsible for the murder of approximately 1.7 million Jews, most of them Polish Jews. The overwhelming majority of victims in the Operation Reinhard killing centers—Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka—were Jews deported from ghettos in Poland."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Operation Reinhard." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2015.
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Operation Reinhard (Einsatz Reinhard)." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 20 June 2014. Web. 20 Apr. 2015.

November 24,1941

"The Theresienstadt 'camp-ghetto' existed for three and a half years, between November 24, 1941 and May 9, 1945.... First, Theresienstadt served as a transit camp for Czech Jews whom the Germans deported to killing centers, concentration camps, and forced-labor camps in German-occupied Poland, Belorussia, and the Baltic States.... The publicly stated purpose for the deportation of the Jews from Germany was their 'resettlement to the east,' where they would be compelled to perform forced labor....The ghetto was in reality a collection center for deportations to ghettos and killing centers in Nazi-occupied eastern Europe."

"When a new child comes
Everything seems strange to him.
What, on the ground I have to lie?
Eat black potatoes? No! Not I!
I've got to stay? It's dirty here!
The floor- why, look, it's dirt, I fear!
And I'm supposed to sleep on it?
I'll get all dirty!

Here the sound of shouting, cries,
And oh, so many flies.
Everyone knows flies carry disease.
Oooh, something bit me! Wasn't that a bedbug?
Here in Terezin, life is hell
And when I'll go home again, I can't yet tell."
-'Teddy' 1943 Written in Terezin Concentration Camp

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Theresienstadt." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 20 June 2014. Web. 24 Apr. 2015.
Friedler, Sorelle. "World War II Poetry." World War II Poetry. Sorelle Friedler, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2015.

December 8, 1941

"Killing operations begin at the Chelmno killing center, located about 30 miles northwest of Lodz. SS and police authorities established the Chelmno killing center in order to annihilate the Jewish population of the Wartheland (an area of western Poland directly annexed to the German Reich), including the inhabitants of the Lodz ghetto. It was the first stationary facility where poison gas was used for mass murder of Jews. The killing center operated from December 1941 until March 1943 and then briefly in June and early July 1944."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Killing Operations Begin at Chelmno." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2015.

September 5, 1942

"Jews in hiding and their protectors risked severe punishment if captured. In much of German-occupied eastern Europe, such activities were deemed capital offenses. This September 1942 German poster, issued during mass deportations to the Treblinka killing center, threatens death to anyone aiding Jews who fled the Warsaw ghetto."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Death Penalty for Aiding Jews." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2015.

March 1, 1943

"On March 1, 1943, thousands and thousands of sympathetic Americans flocked to Madison Square Garden. The occasion was the "Stop Hitler Now" rally, organized by Rabbi Wise in response to Nazi atrocities. An estimated seventy-five thousand people tried to fill a space built for twenty-one thousand.... Their demands could be found in the words of Dr. Chaim Weizmann, the president of the Jewish Agency for Palestine and the future President of Israel. 'The democracies have a clear duty before them' ... The Stop Hitler Now rally adopted a resolution, expressing 'our solemn and reluctant protest against the continuing failure to act, against the strange indifference of the UNited Nations to the fate of five million human beings...who are captive in nazi-occupied territories...and who are doomed to planned, unhuman torture and death'" (186).

Beir, Robert L., and Brian Josepher. Rosevelt and the Holocaust: How FDR Saved the Jews and Brought Hope to a Nation. New York: Skyhorse, 2013. Print.

November 3, 1943

"The SS feared additional Jewish-led revolts in the Generalgouvernement. To prevent further resistance the SS decided to kill most of the remaining Jews, who were employed in forced-labor projects and were concentrated in the Trawniki, Poniatowa, and Majdanek camps. "Erntefest" began at dawn on November 3, 1943. The Trawniki and Poniatowa labor camps were surrounded by SS and police units.... At Majdanek, Jews were first separated from the other prisoners. They were then taken in groups to nearby trenches and shot. Jews from other labor camps in the Lublin area were also taken to Majdanek and shot. Music was played through loudspeakers at both Majdanek and Trawniki to drown out the noise of the mass shooting. The killing operation was completed in a single day at Majdanek and Trawniki. At Poniatowa the shootings took two days. Approximately 42,000 Jews were killed during "Erntefest.""

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Aktion "Erntefest" (Operation "Harvest Festival")." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 20 June 2014. Web. 22 Apr. 2015.

July 24,1944

"The SS evacuated most of the prisoners to concentration camps further west during the spring of 1944. In late July 1944, as Soviet forces approached Lublin, the remaining camp staff hastily abandoned Majdanek, without fully dismantling the camp. Soviet troops first arrived at Majdanek during the night of July 22–23 and captured Lublin on July 24. Captured virtually intact, Majdanek was the first major concentration camp to be liberated. Soviet officials invited journalists to inspect the camp and evidence of the horrors that had occurred there."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Liberation of Lublin-Majdanek." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2015.

October 7,1944

"On October 7, 1944, prisoners assigned to Crematorium IV at the Auschwitz-Birkenau killing center rebel after learning that they were going to be killed....On October 7, 1944, having learned that the SS was going to liquidate much of the squad, the members of the Sonderkommando at Crematorium IV rose in revolt. The Germans crushed the revolt. Nearly 250 prisoners died during the fighting and guards shot another 200 after the mutiny was suppressed. Several days later, the SS identified five women, four of them Jewish, who had been involved in supplying explosives to blow up a crematorium used to burn the bodies of Nazi murder victims. All five women were killed."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Prisoner Revolt at Auschwitz-Birkenau." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2015.

April 11,1945

"On April 11, 1945, in expectation of liberation, starved and emaciated prisoners stormed the watchtowers, seizing control of the camp. Later that afternoon, US forces entered Buchenwald. Soldiers from the 6th Armored Division, part of the Third Army, found more than 21,000 people in the camp. Between July 1937 and April 1945, the SS imprisoned some 250,000 persons from all countries of Europe in Buchenwald.... The SS murdered at least 56,000 male prisoners in the Buchenwald camp system, some 11,000 of them Jews."

"The resistance movement decided at that point to act. Armed men appeared from everywhere. Bursts of gunshots. Grenades exploding.... The battle did not last long. Around noon, everything was calm again. The SS had fled and the resistance had taken charge of the camp. At six o'clock that afternoon, the first American tank stood at the gates of Buchenwald" (Wiesel 115).

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Buchenwald." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 20 June 2014. Web. 29 Apr. 2015.
Wiesel, Elie, and Marion Wiesel. Night. 1st ed. New York, NY: Hill and Wang, a Division of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006. Print.

April 12,1945

"Canadian forces liberate 876 prisoners at the Westerbork camp in the Netherlands. The Westerbork camp was situated in the northeastern part of the Netherlands in the Dutch province of Drenthe, near the towns of Westerbork and Assen. The Dutch government established a camp at Westerbork in October 1939 to intern Jewish refugees who had entered the Netherlands illegally. The camp continued to function after the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940. In 1941 it had a population of 1,100 Jewish refugees, mostly from Germany. From 1942 to 1944 Westerbork served as a transit camp for Dutch Jews before they were deported to killing centers in German-occupied Poland. In early April 1945, as Allied troops approached the camp, the Germans abandoned Westerbork. Westerbork was liberated on April 12, 1945, by Canadian forces who found 876 inmates there."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Liberation of Westerbork." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.

May 5,1945

"As Allied and Soviet forces advanced into Germany, the SS evacuated concentration camps near the front lines to prevent the liberation of large numbers of prisoners. Prisoners evacuated by train, by truck, and by forced march from Auschwitz, Sachsenhausen, and Gross-Rosen began arriving at Mauthausen in early 1945. As a result, the camp—as well as most subcamps—became lethally overcrowded, with existing dreadful conditions deteriorating still further. Thousands of prisoners died from starvation or disease. Typhus epidemics further reduced the camp's population....On May 3, 1945, the SS abandoned the camp to the custody of a guard unit of 50 Viennese firefighters, who remained on the perimeter of the camp. Members of an 'International Committee. formed by the prisoners in the last days of April administered the camp as units of the US Army arrived at the camp and secured the surrounding area on May 5."

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Liberation of Mauthausen." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.